Transfusion-related immune modulation (TRIM)

When to suspect this adverse reaction?

TRIM is a transient immunosuppression in recipients which may occur following transfusion of allogeneic blood.(1)

No specific signs or symptoms have been attributed to TRIM.

The incidence rate of TRIM is not known.
 

Usual causes?

No specific mechanisms have been definitely proven as the pathway for post-transfusion immunosuppression. It is partially due to transfused white cells releasing cytokines, which leads to immune modulation.(1,2)

There have been a number of reported TRIM-associated effects on the transfusion recipient ranging from improved clinical outcome in renal allograft transplantation to an increased rate of tumour recurrence in cancer surgery patients and an increased rate of post-operative bacterial infection.(1,2)
 

Investigation

No specific investigation process has been defined.
 

What to do?

The most important approach is to avoid allogeneic blood transfusion in general. Removal of donor white cells by prestorage filtration of cellular blood components may help to lessen TRIM.(1,2)
 

References

1. Blajchman MA and Vamvakas MA.  Chapter 10, Transfusion- related immunomodulation.  Practical Transfusion Medicine, 3rd edition.  Blackwell Publishing.
2. Refaai MA and Blumberg N.  Transfusion immunomodulation from a clinical perspective: an update.  Expert Rev Hematol 2013;6(6):653-663.